Urdu Columns on Politics
By requiring this standard purchasing process through policy, the organization can limit waste and standardize the way purchasing is done. The State of California provides an example of benefit-seeking policy. Policies frequently have side effects or unintended consequences. Because the environments that policies seek to influence or manipulate are typically complex adaptive systems e.
For example, a government may make a policy decision to raise taxes, in hopes of increasing overall tax revenue. Depending on the size of the tax increase, this may have the overall effect of reducing tax revenue by causing capital flight or by creating a rate so high that citizens are deterred from earning the money that is taxed. See the Laffer curve. The policy formulation process theoretically includes an attempt to assess as many areas of potential policy impact as possible, to lessen the chances that a given policy will have unexpected or unintended consequences.
In political science , the policy cycle is a tool used for the analyzing of the development of a policy item. It can also be referred to as a "stagist approach", "stages heuristic" or "stages approach". It is thus a rule of thumb rather than the actual reality of how policy is created, but has been influential in how political scientists looked at policy in general.
One version by James E. Anderson, in his Public Policy-Making has the following stages:. It is intentionally normative [ clarification needed ] and not meant to be diagnostic [ clarification needed ] or predictive. Policy cycles are typically characterized as adopting a classical approach, and tend to describe processes from the perspective of policy decision makers. Accordingly, some postpositivist academics challenge cyclical models as unresponsive and unrealistic, preferring systemic and more complex models.
Policies are typically promulgated through official written documents. Policy documents often come with the endorsement or signature of the executive powers within an organization to legitimize the policy and demonstrate that it is considered in force.
Such documents often have standard formats that are particular to the organization issuing the policy. While such formats differ in form, policy documents usually contain certain standard components including [ citation needed ]:. The American political scientist Theodore J. Lowi proposed four types of policy, namely distributive , redistributive , regulatory and constituent in his article 'Four systems of Policy, Politics and Choice' and in 'American Business, Public Policy, Case Studies and Political Theory'.
Policy addresses the intent of the organization, whether government, business, professional, or voluntary. Policy is intended to affect the 'real' world, by guiding the decisions that are made. Whether they are formally written or not, most organizations have identified policies. Policies may be classified in many different ways.
The following is a sample of several different types of policies broken down by their effect on members of the organization. Examples include government policies that impact spending for welfare , public education , highways , and public safety, or a professional organization's benefits plan.
Regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of behavior. These policies are generally thought to be best applied when good behavior can be easily defined and bad behavior can be easily regulated and punished through fines or sanctions. An example of a fairly successful public regulatory policy is that of a highway speed limit.
Constituent policies create executive power entities, or deal with laws. Constituent policies also deal with Fiscal Policy in some circumstances. Policies are dynamic; they are not just static lists of goals or laws. The President's power to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the National Assembly was removed by the Thirteenth Amendment and partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment.
The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies. The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected.
Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills. Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills. In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting.
Unlike the National Assembly, the Senate cannot be dissolved by the President. Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage formerly twenty-one years of age and older but the seventeenth amendment changed it to eighteen years of age.
Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved.
Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs. Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five: The Federal Shariat Court FSC of Pakistan is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari'a law.
It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court.
Of the 8 judges, 3 are required to be Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years, which may eventually be extended by the President. If any part of the law is declared to be against Islamic law, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend such law appropriately. The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts, deciding Hudood cases.
The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary. The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. Ever since its establishment in , the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan has been the subject of criticism and controversy in the society. Created as an islamisation measure by the military regime and subsequently protected under the controversial 8th Amendment, its opponents question the very rationale and utility of this institution.
It is stated that this court merely duplicates the functions of the existing superior courts and also operates as a check on the sovereignty of Parliament. The composition of the court, particularly the mode of appointment of its judges and the insecurity of their tenure, is taken exception to, and it is alleged, that this court does not fully meet the criterion prescribed for the independence of the judiciary.
That is to say, it is not immune to pressures and influences from the Executive. In the past, this court was used as a refuge for the recalcitrant judges.
In every province, there is one High Court. In 18th Amendment, judges appointments are proposed by a Parliamentary Commission. Judges of the provincial high courts were, previously appointed The seventeenth amendment give these powers to the president, previously Prime minister exercised them by the president after consultation with the chief justice of the Supreme Court, as well as the governor of the province and the chief justice of the high court to which the appointment is being made.
High courts have original and appellate jurisdiction. In addition, there are special courts and tribunals to deal with specific kinds of cases, such as drug courts, commercial courts, labour courts, traffic courts, an insurance appellate tribunal, an income tax appellate tribunal, and special courts for bank offences.
There are also special courts to try terrorists. Appeals from special courts go to high courts except for labour and traffic courts, which have their own forums for appeal.
Appeals from the tribunals go to the Supreme Court. A further feature of the judicial system is the office of Mohtasib Ombudsman , which is provided for in the constitution. The office of Mohtasib was established in many early Muslim states to ensure that no wrongs were done to citizens. Appointed by the president, the Mohtasib holds office for four years; the term cannot be extended or renewed.
The Mohtasib's purpose is to institutionalize a system for enforcing administrative accountability, through investigating and rectifying any injustice done to a person through maladministration by a federal agency or a federal government official. The Mohtasib is empowered to award compensation to those who have suffered loss or damage as a result of maladministration. Excluded from jurisdiction, however, are personal grievances or service matters of a public servant as well as matters relating to foreign affairs, national defence, and the armed services.
This institution is designed to bridge the gap between administrator and citizen, to improve administrative processes and procedures, and to help curb misuse of discretionary powers. Civilian, yet socialist-oriented autocratic, rule continued from to under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but he was deposed by General Zia-Ul-Haq. She was the youngest woman ever to be elected the Head of Government and the first woman to be elected as the Head of Government of a Muslim country.
Her government was followed by that of Nawaz Sharif, and the two leaders alternated until the military coup by General Pervez Musharraf in From the resignation of President Rafiq Tarar in , to his own resignation in , Musharraf was the President of Pakistan. In , Asif Ali Zardari was elected president. Officially a federal republic , Pakistan has had a long history of alternating periods of electoral democracy and authoritarian military government.
However, a majority of Pakistan's Heads of State and Heads of Government have been elected civilian leaders. General elections were held in October After monitoring the elections, the Commonwealth Observer Group stated in conclusion:. There were 7 Civilian Presidents and 4 from Army. In these long 66 years of Pakistan Fazal Ilahi Chuhdari and Asif Ali Zardari are the only presidents how has completed there 5 years as par constitution.
In this page, you will read List of Presedents of Pakistan in Urdu. Iskander Mirza ko mulik ka phela sadar hone ka ayzaz hasil hai.
Republican Party ki numaindagi karne wale Iskandar Mirza ne 23 March se 27 October tak ye ahudah sanbhala. Iskander Mirza ke pas Pakistan ke akhari Governor General hone ka ayzaz bhi hai. Foji bagawat ke natije mein General Ayuob Khan ne October mein unhein ahudah chorne par majbor kar deya.
General Ayub Khan 27 October se 8 June tak mulik ke dosre sadar ki haisiyat mein zimedariyan anjam dete rahe. Unhone June se 25 March tak dosri mudat e sadarat bhi ghuzari.
Unhi ke dor e sadarat mein Pakistan ko riwayati harif India ke khilaf tarikhi ki jang se ghuzarna para. Ayuob Khan ke istife ke bad mansab e sadarat sanbhalne wale Yahya Khan ke dor mein saqute Dhaka ka saneha ronuma hoa.
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